Research and Community Service

residency program.


The Department of Surgery has an active research program, and participation in studies is required. Our residents, fellows, and faculty frequently present research at national and international conferences, including the American Association for the Surgery of Trauma, Southwestern Surgical Congress, American Burn Association, Western Trauma Association, Society for Critical Care Medicine, and the American College of Surgeons.

Our department conducts a wide variety of research including both retrospective and prospective studies, and also participates in multi-center studies and funded trials. Research topics include trauma, critical care, general surgery, surgical oncology, vascular surgery, and violence intervention and prevention.

Recent Publications

  • Zamary K, Davis J, Ament E, Garry J, Dirks R. This too shall pass: a study of ingested sharp foreign bodies. J Trauma Acute Care Surg. January 2017. 82(1):150-55.
  • Davis JW, Dirks RC, Sue LP, Kaups KK. Attempting to validate the over/under triage matrix at a Level I trauma center. J Trauma Acute Care Surg. December 2017. 83(6):1173-1178.
  • Siada SS, Schaetzel SS, Chen AK, Hoang HD, Wilder FG, Dirks RC, Kaups KL, Davis JW. Day versus night laparoscopic cholecystectomy: a comparison of outcomes and cost. Am J Surg. December 2017. 214(6):1024-1027.
  • Zarzaur BL, Dunn JA, Leininger B, Lauerman M, Shanmuganathan K, Kaups K, Zamary K, et al. Natural history of splenic vascular abnormalities after blunt injury: A Western Trauma Association multicenter trial. J Trauma Acute Care Surg. December 2017. 83(6):999-1005.
  • Siada SS, Davis JW, Kaups KL, Dirks RC, Grannis KA. Current outcomes of blunt open pelvic fractures: how modern advances in trauma care may decrease overall mortality. Trauma Surg Acute Care Open. December 2017. 2(1):e000136.
  • Bilello JF, Sharp V, Dirks RC, Davis JW, Kaups KL. After the embo: predicting non-hemorrhagic indications for splenectomy after angioembolization in blunt trauma patients. Trauma Surg Acute Care Open. February 2018. 3(1):e000159.
  • Davis J, Dirks R, Kaups K, Tran P. Base Deficit is superior to lactate in trauma. Am J Surg. April 2018. 215(4):682-685.
  • Koo J, Tamura D. Fidget spinner battery-LED unit ingestion in a 13-month-old boy. Clin Pediatr. June 2018. 57(7):857-860.
  • Munoz R, Farshidpour L, Chaudhary UB, Fathi AH. Multidisciplinary cancer care model: a positive association between nurse navigation and improved outcomes of cancer patients. Clin J Oncol Nurs. October 2018. 22(5):E141-E145.
  • Kozar RA, Crandall M, Shanmuganathan K, Zarzaur B, Coburn M, Cribari C, Kaups K, Schuster K, Tominaga G, et al. Organ injury scaling 2018 update: spleen, liver, and kidney. J Trauma Acute Care Surg. December 2018. 85(6):1119-1122.
  • Talley CL, Campbell BT, Jenkins DH, Barnes SL, Sidwell RA, Timmerman G, Gross RI, Coburn M, Bailey J, Eastman A, Ficke J, Kuncir E, Letton R, Eastridge BJ, Liepert A, Wilson A, Robinette D, Davis J, Shalgian C, Michaels H, Weissler M, Kuhls DA, Bulger EM, Stewart RM. Recommendations from the American College of Surgeons Committee on Trauma’s Firearm Strategy Team (FAST) Workgroup: Chicago Consensus I. J Am Coll Surg. February 2019. 228(2):198-206.
  • Michetti CP, Fakhr SM, Brasel K, Martin ND, Teicher EJ, Newcomb A, Stewart A, Chang G, Foreman M, Rainey EE, Moore FO, Huang J, Kaups KL, Dirks RC, et al. Trauma ICU Prevalence Project: the diversity of surgical critical care. Trauma Surg Acute Care Open. Feb 2019. 4(1):e000288.
  • Wilder FG, Minasyan SZ. Thoracic stent graft accompanied by coil embolization for pulmonary sequestration. Innovations (Phila). April 2019. 14(2):168-173.
  • Thomasson RR, Yazer MH, Gorham JD, Dunbar NM, MTP Use Study Investigators (Long A, McCullough K). International assessment of massive transfusion protocol contents and indications for activation. Transfusion. May 2019. 59(5):1637-1643.
  • Michetti CP, Fakhry SM, Brasel K, Martin ND, Teicher EJ, Newcomb A, Stewart A, Chang G, Foreman M, Rainey EE, Moore FO, Huang J, Kaups KL, Dirks RC, et al. Structure and function of a trauma intensive care unit: a report from the trauma ICU prevalence project (TRIPP). J Trauma Acute Care Surg. May 2019. 86(5):783-790.
  • Jeffcoach DR, Sue LP, Wolfe MM, Siada SS, Kwok AM, McCray VW, Davis JW. Dual chamber cardiac rupture following blunt thoracic trauma. Case Reports in Surgery. May 2019.
  • Ma P, Ghiassi S, Lloyd A, Haddad A, Boone K, DeMaria E, Higa K. Reversal of Roux en Y gastric bypass: largest single institution experience. Surg Obes Relat Dis. May 2019. S1550-7289(19):30175-3.
  • Frazee R, Regner J, Truitt M, Agrawal V, Swope M, Cothren Burlew C, Dissanaike S, Vangipurum D, Bruns B, O’Meara L, Stivers J, Kwok A, et al. The Southwestern Surgical Congress Multi-Center trial on suspected common duct stones. Am J Surg. June 2019. 217(6):1006-1009.
  • Regner J, Shaver C, Brooks S, Dissanaike S, Brown C, Frazee R, Pieracci F, Burlew C, Davis J, Dirks R, et al. Determining the impact of culture on venous thromboembolism prevention in trauma patients: a Southwestern Surgical Congress Multicenter Trial. Am J Surg. June 2019. 217(6):1030-1036.
  • Ma P, Lloyd A, McGrath M, Moore R, Jackson A, Boone K, Higa K. Reduction of opioid use after implementation of enhanced recovery after bariatric surgery (ERABS). Surg Endosc. July 2019. 15(8):1311-1316.
  • Chen A, Jeffcoach D, Stivers JC, McCullough KA, Dirks R, Boehnke RJ, Sue LP, Kwok AM, Wolfe MM, Davis JW. The impact of obesity on severity of solid organ injury in the adult population at a level I trauma center. Trauma Surg Acute Care Open. July 2019. 4(1):e000318.
  • Siada S, Dirks R, Davis J, Jeffcoach D. A predictive grading scale for acute cholecystitis. Trauma Surg Acute Care Open. July 2019. 4(1):e000324.
  • Harmon L, Bilow R, Shanmuganathan K, Lauerman M, Todd, SR, Cardenas J, Haugen C, Albrecht R, Pittman S, Cohen M, Burlew C, Fox C, Kaups K, Dirks R, Con J, Inaba K, Harrison P, Berg G, Waller C, Kallies K, Kozar R. Delayed splenic hemorrhage: myth or mystery? A Western Trauma Association multicenter study. Am J Surg. Sep 2019. 218(3):579-583.
  • Ma P, Lloyd A, McGrath M, CUng AS, Akusoba I, Jackson A, Swartz D, Boone K, Higa K. Efficacy of liposomal bupivacaine versus bupivacaine in port site injections on postoperative pain within enhanced recovery after bariatric surgery program: a randomized clinical trial. Surg Obes Relat Dis. Sep 2019. 15(9):1554-1562.
  • Bulger EM, Perina DG, Qasim Z, Beldowicz B, Brenner M, Guyette F, Rowe D, Kang C, Gurney J, DuBose J, Joseph B, Lyon R, Kaups K, et al. Clinical use of resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta (REBOA) in civilian trauma systems in the USA, 2019: a joint statement from the American College of Surgeons Committee on Trauma, the American College of Emergency Physicians, the National Association of Emergency Medical Services Physicians and the National Association of Emergency Medical Technicians. Trauma Surgery Acute Care Open. Sep 2019. 4(1):e000376.
  • McClintock NC, Gray KE, Neville AL, Kaji AH, Wolfe MM. Factors associated with general surgery residents’ decisions regarding fellowship and subspecialty stratified by burnout and quality of life. Am J Surg. Dec 2019. 218(6):1090-1095.
  • Gray K, Neville A, Kaji AH, Wolfe M, Calhoun K, et al. Career goals, salary expectations, and salary negotiation among male and female general surgery residents. JAMA Surg. Epub ahead of print.
  • Gray K, Kaji AH, Wolfe M, Calhoun K, et al. Influence of student loan debt on general surgery resident career and lifestyle decision-making. JACS. Epub ahead of print.
  • Higginson SM, Sheets NW, Sue LP, Wolfe MM, Kwok AM, Dirks RC, Doggett RS, Gopal VC, Davis JW. Changes in splenic capsule with aging; beliefs and reality. Am J Surg. Epub ahead of print.
  • Sheets NW, Davis JW, Dirks RC, Pang AW, Kwok AM, Wolfe MM, Sue LP. Intercostal nerve block with liposomal bupivacaine is superior to epidural analgesia for the treatment of traumatic rib fractures. JACS. In Press.




  • Recent community service projects have included topics such as:
  • Distracted driving
  • Child/infant car seats and restraints
  • Violence intervention
  • Concussion education
  • Pedestrian/bicycle safety
  • Fall prevention
  • Substance abuse education
  • Water safety
  • “Stop the Bleed” campaign
  • Geriatric trauma
  • Trauma Survivors outreach


For more information about trauma and research, please visit the Trauma Research Foundation of Fresno website: